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High Purity Gallium


Gallium is a soft silvery metal and is a brittle solid at low temperatures. It is one of three elements that occur naturally as a liquid at room temperature, The other two are liquid Hg and cesium, and it easily alloys with many metals, the alloy - galinstan (68.5% gallium, 21.5% indium, and 10% tin) has an even lower melting point of −19°C (−2 °F), well below the freezing point of water. It does not exist by itself in nature and is sourced commercially from bauxite and sphalerite.

Santech Materials specializes in producing high purity Gallium with purities of 4N -7 N, Gallium Trioxide and Copper Gallium Indium Tin Alloy (any combination). 

Purity available in 99.99%, 99.999%, 99.9999%






GB/T1475-2005 (Ga4N)

Atomic Weight


Melting point 29.78℃

Boiling point


5.904 g/cm−3

Liquid density

at m.p.: 6.095 g/cm−3


1.81 (Pauling scale)

Molar Heat Capacity

25.86 J·mol-1·K-1

Thermal expansion 18 µm·m-1·K-1 (at 25 °C)
Thermal conductivity
40.6 W·m-1·K-1

Gallium is widely used as production of Gallium arsenide (GaAs) for semiconductor (Microchip) and manufacturing of Ga2O3.


Gallium used for the preparation of GaAs Wafer

Stage 1: the starting materials (either pre-synthesised polycrystalline chunks or, in the case of semi-insulating GaAs, elemental Ga and As) are placed in the growth crucible along with a pellet of boron trioxide. The crucible is placed inside a high pressure crystal puller and heated up.At 460°C the boron trioxide melts to form a thick, viscous liquid which coats the entire melt, including the crucible (hence, liquid encapsulated). This layer, in combination with the pressure in the crystal puller, prevents sublimation of the volatile group V element.The temperature is increased until the compound synthesises (temperatures and pressures are varied depending on which material is being produced). A seed crystal is then dipped, through the boron trioxide layer, into the melt. The seed is rotated and slowly withdrawn and a single crystal propagates from the seed.

Stage 2: the methods for making GaAs wafers is very similar to the preparation of  silicon wafers. First of all, the As- grown boules are grinded to a precise diameter and then incorporatied with orientation flats. This is followed by the following steps:

Wafering using a diamond ID saw
Edge rounding
Wafer Scrubbing

Stage 3: Epitaxial wafer is usually grown using vapor-phase epitaxy (VPE), a modification of chemical vapor deposition. Molecular-beam and liquid-phase epitaxy (MBE and LPE) are also used, mainly for compound semiconductors. Solid-phase epitaxy is used primarily for crystal-damage healing.

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